Krugersdorp History (educational)

Krugersdorp club

1. Inleiding
Dankie vir die uitnodiging om u vandag te begelei op ‘n virtuele toer van die geskiedenis van Krugerdorp. My naam is Janet du Plooy. Ek het my PhD- graad in 1998 aan die PU vir CHO behaal met “Die sosio-kulturele ontwikkeling van Krugersdorp onder munisipale bestuur, 1903 tot 1993” as tema van my tesis. Sedert 2004 is ek ‘n vryskut consultant in erfenis-
hulpbronbestuur (Heritage Resource Manament).


2. Cradle of Humankind
The historical past of Krugersdorp dates back to the pre-historic period of the Australopithecus Africanus and the Stone Age communities of the present Krugersdorp. A visit to the Sterkfontein Caves and Maropeng explain the historical past related to the pre-historic period of the area.


3. Batswana establishment

When the first white pioneers settled in this region in the 19th Century, the area was unoccupied. The Batswana people fled from the region during the period of the Mfecane to settle west of Krugersdorp in the area of the Magalies Mountains near Rustenburg under Chief (Kgosi) Mamogale, after whom the pioneers named the mountain range. The Statue of Kgosi Mogale
in front of the municipal building was commission and donated to the Mogale  City Local Municipality by the Private Company, Recreation Africa – Managing one of south Africa’s finest hotels: Misty Hills in Mogale City. This initiative came in honor of the brave chief of Mogale wa Mogale whom the Municipality is named after. The artist Adam Madebe began making clay
models and woodcarvings of animals and birds as a boy herding his father’s cattle near Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. He perfected his knowledge of anatomy, form and movement by drawing and redrawing figures. His unique technique for creating a clay sculpture, cladding it in welded metal sheets and then removing the clay leaving a hollow metal form, has been refined over a
number of years.


4. First white settlement

The first white pioneers settled in the Krugersdorp area since 1839. The farm Paardeplaats on which Krugersdorp was established originally belonged to the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius where his nephew, Martiens Pretorius, farmed horses for him. The climate on the Witwatersrand is extremely suitable for horse farming because the area is free of horse disease. Martiens provided horses for hundreds of pioneers for farm purposes. The stone kraal (Pretoriuskraal) that he used on the farm can still be seen today in Blouberg Street in Noordheuwel.
The farm was transferred in the name of Martiens in 1853 after the death of Andries Pretorius. To distinguish him from his two cousins of the same name, he was called "Vaal Martiens". (MW Pretorius, the Transvaal President and “Swart” Martiens, an officer in the Driving Police and the father of the town Piet Potgietersrust, now Mokopane).

5. People's Assembly at Paardekraal 1880

The British annexation of the Transvaal in 1877 leads to three “Volksvergaderings” (public gatherings) in protest to the annexation. The third gathering was held on the farm Paardeplaats on the 10th December 1880. The availability of horses for the men folk to go directly from the gathering on commando against the British invasion, played a significant role in the location of the meeting. The second determining factor was the availability of water for so many people and animals next to the farm dam, today known as the Monument Dam. Between 6,000 and 8,000 citizens attended the National Assembly. Rev. Nic van Warmelo led a moving worship service and pleaded with God for assistance, after which the meeting decided to take action. To visibly confirm the decision, everyone who attended the meeting packed a stone on a large pile of stones. The Paardekraal Monument stands today where the stone pile was packed and a solemn Vow was made. A trio, consisting of Piet Joubert, MW Pretorius and Paul Kruger, was nominated to temporarily take over the government of the country. The war against the British was fought in three battles in favor of the peasants, namely the Battle of Laingsnek, the Battle of Schuinshoogte and the Battle of Amajuba.


6. Unveiling of the Paardekraal Monument
It was a grateful people who came to hold a huge folk festival on Paardeplaats on 16 December 1881 and decided to hold an annual religious festival (Geloftefees) at the stone pile. The Volksraad decided in 1883 to erect a monument over the stone pile. The monument was designed by Zytske Wierda, the state architect, and was ceremoniously inaugurated on 16 December 1891. On this occasion, Paul Kruger, then State President, was the keynote speaker. A large crowd attended the festival and inauguration of the monument with wagons and tents. In the history of the Afrikaner, the Paardekraal events play a decisive role. This is where the Great Trek ends and a new chapter in history has begun.


7. Paardekraal Monument
The monument commemorates the original site of the vow made by the Transvaal Boers on 13 December 1880, prior to the armed rebellion known as First Boer War. They vowed to regain their independence from the BritishEmpire. This earlier monument was a cairn made of thousands of stonesrepresenting the gathered burgers' vow. This official monument enclosed
the original stone cairn and was built in 1890 by the South African Republic(ZAR) to commemorate their independence from Great Britain. The landwas donated to the government in 1886, up to 100 m from the site of thecairn by Vaal Martiens Pretorius, the owner of the farm Paardeplaats. Themonument was built in the form of an obelisk in white stone, sourced from
the area and stand at a height of 18 metre. It has an opening underneaththe base of the obelisk, with a grated iron opening, storing the remains ofthe original cairn. The inscription on four marble panels relate the history ofthe Afrikaner from the arrival of the Huguenots in the 17th Centuary untilPaardekraal in 1881.


8. Paardekraal site

In addition to the monument itself, there are several other attractions on display at the Paardekraal festival grounds. During the 100th anniversary celebration in 1938 on the occasion of the Great Trek, wagon and animal tracks were laid in cement on the festival grounds. A memorial wall symbolically referring to the original stone pile was erected at the monument in 2001. The memorial wall was erected to remind future generations of the motto: We will maintain, we will build. A museum, with a replica of Paul Kruger's carriage as a pivot point, was added to the site in 2019 together with a statue of a Boer warrior. The peasant warrior in typical dress during the Wars of Independence was collected by the artist Jaco van Niekerk at his own expense and donated to Paardekraal.


9. Statues: Paul Kruger en JG Strijdom

The birthday of President Paul Kruger was annually commemorated over a long period of time on the 10th October  (Krugerdag). The municipality donated land for a Kruger statue next to the Monument Dam in 1950. The statue was unveiled on the 10th October 1961 by the first President of the new Republic of South Africa, Adv CR (Blackie) Swart. The statue
commemorates the last president of the ZAR (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek) and his vision for the future. The statue is the product of the artist Laurika Postma. Opposite the Kruger statue is the bust of Adv JG Strijdom, the Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa. His ideal for independence from the British Commonworld and the forming of a republican state realized only
after his untimely passing in 1958. The artist JH Labuschagne was responsible for the bust on granite stones from the Waterberg Mountains, the parliamentary constituency of Strijdom.

10. Discovery of gold (1)
The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in the early 1880’s was the second event that had an influence on the establishment of Krugersdorp. The proclamation of the farms Paardekraal and Luipaardsvlei as public diggings in 1886 necessitated the establishment of a town to serve the newly proclaimed gold fields.


11. Discovery of gold (2)
Early mining gold mining activities in the Krugersdorp region can be visited at the Blaaubank Mine (Magaliesburg) and the Kromdraai Mine in the Cradle of Hope. Evidence of digging activities can be found on privately owned farmland, i.e. on the farm Honingklip.


12. Krugersdorp Public Diggings
The Mine Commissioner, Robert Gerrit Ockerse and a magistrate, JC Human, was responsible for the management and the law and order of the Krugersdorp public diggings. Ockerse was responsible for about 50 diggings (mines), issuing licenses and the collecting of license fees.


13. Establishment of Krugersdorp
The owner of the farm Paardekraal, Vaal Martiens Pretorius, donated land to the government for the establishment of the town on condition that it is named Krugersdorp after his vriend Paul Kruger, the president of the ZAR.


14. Krugersdorp Standplaasdorp

The new town to be was surveyed into 576 stands by the state surveyor FH Rissik. The first 200 stands in Krugersdorp to serve the Krugersdorp public diggings were sold by public auction on the 31st October 1887 under a 99- year leasehold agreement. Krugersdorp CBD represents the original Stands town. One of the first residents of Krugersdorp was the Jew, Abner Cohen. He operated a saloon just below the stone cairn (Paardekraal Monument). This caused an uproar under the Boer people due to his so-called disrespect to the significance of the site. The result was that Cohen walked to Pretoria to request the president personally to allocate to him a stand in the new town. And yes, he received the very first stand in Krugersdorp at the corner of Commissioner and Kruger Street to open and operate his saloon. This stand forms part of the “government block”. Today this block still houses the old Magistrates Court (Museum), The post and telegraph office, later the Office of the Mine Commissioner (Mogale Tourism); The Post Offices, and the old Revenue Services at the opposite corner behind the Museum.


15. Old Magistrate's Building

This long, flat building is in the classic style of the TransvaalRepublic with a Corinthian portal and a small tower in the middle on top of the building. The classic style is repeated in the door and window finishes. The architect was Zytske Wierda, State Architect of the ZAR. The construction work was done by J.M. Manté. The cornerstone of the building was unveiled by Pres. SJP Kruger on 18 September 1890. The building was used as a magistrate's court until 17 June 1973. Krugersdorp's first magistrate was J.C. Human. Krugersdorp's tradition of parks and decoration of the town can be traced back to him. He already had the first trees in the town in 1889planted. One of the eucalyptus trees planted in front of the Magistrate's Building was known as the “Dooiemansboom” because the funeral director, Mr. Bradbury, the death notices of residents nailed it. The walls of the courtroom behind the main hall still have graffiti dating from the days when those awaiting trial were detained there. According to tradition, Dr. Jameson was detained in the court cell in 1896 after his capture at the Battle of Vlakfontein until he and his troop were deported to Pretoria. The building was transferred to the Krugersdorp City Council in 1973 with the aim of establishing a museum in it. The building was functionally restored in 1994 and officially opened on January 10, 1995. The main theme of the museum is the people and cultures of Krugersdorp under the philosophy that “Krugersdorp is the museum”.

16. Distriksdorp
The Standplaasdorp only served the surrounding diggings. The
residents of the surrounding farms, and those who were not involved in the digging, fell for administrative, military and legal purposes in the districts of Pretoria, Potchefstroom, Rustenburg and Heidelberg. The need for an independent magisterial district for Krugersdorp increased as the site town expanded and more traders and professionals came to settle in Krugersdorp. The proclamation of the Krugersdorp Magistrate's District in 1894 with a separate “district town” as its seat is a very important event in the development of Krugersdorp. The "District Town" was laid out in 1897 northwest of the Paardekraal Monument and measured in 309 civic erven in blocks of six erven per block. The new Krugersdorp District Town, independent of the Krugersdorp Standplaasdorp, separated by a creek, functioned with its own magistrate and health committee. The District Town is today known as Krugersdorp North.

17. Burgershoop
17. Burgershoop
A third residential area, Burgershoop, was approved as early as 1896 as a settlement for impoverished whites. The Burgershoop Brickfields a shelter to hundreds of farmers who could no longer make a living on their farms due to the rinderpest. The brickmaking licenses were revoked in 1901 and 45 sites were transferred to private ownership in 1903.

18. Burgeshoop Brickfields
The living conditions on the Brickfields were appalling. Most of the buildings were erected with zinc and wood. Only in 1908 did the municipality approve the erection of 199 brick buildings.


19. Jameson raid 1896
The early development of Krugersdorp were overshadowed by the political turmoil over the rights of the many foreigners on the gold fields of the Witwatersrand. The turmoil resulted in the Jameson Raid in which
Krugersdorp played a significant part. The Jameson Raid (29 December 1895 – 2 January 1896) was a botched raid against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal) carried out by British colonial administrator Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops ("police" in the employ of Alfred Beit's and Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company) and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895–96. Paul Kruger was president of the republic at the time. The raid was intended
to trigger an uprising by the primarily British expatriate workers (known as Uitlanders) in the Transvaal but failed to do so. The workers were called the Johannesburg conspirators. They were expected to recruit an army and prepare for an insurrection. The raid was ineffective and no uprising took place.


20. Voorgekeer by die Queens Battery
From Pitsani near Magikeng, Jameson with his troops focused to reach Johannesburg via Krugersdorp. However, the Boer commando of Krugersdorp stop them in a battle at the Queens Battery (the area between Robert Broom Drive and the Game Reserve). Lt Sarel Eloff, the grandson of Pres. Paul Kruger, lead the Boer commando to victory in the battle at the Queens Battery.

21. Defeat at Vlakfontein
This caused the raiders to fall back in an attempt to cross the railway line near Robinson, Randfontein. From there they tried to reach the Potchefstroom-Johannesburg road, where they faced the Boer Commando under the leadership of Genl. Piet Cronje on the farm Vlakfontein, east of Krugersdorp. The defeated Jameson and his troops were marched to Krugersdorp and later to Pretoria. The results included the embarrassment of the British government; the replacement of Cecil Rhodes as premier of the Cape Colony; and the strengthening of Boer dominance of the Transvaal and its gold mines. The raid was a contributory cause of the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902).


22. Jameson Invasion - Graves Burgershoop Cemetery
Five Boere commando members who died during the Jameson invasion in 1896 were buried in the Krugersdorp cemetery (Burgershoop). The memorial was erected around the tombs in 1917.



23. Anglo-Boer War
After the Jameson invasion, relations between Britain and the ZAR deteriorated. War was imminent and Paul Kruger issued an ultimatum to Britain on 10 October 1899 to stop the build-up of British troops in SA. The ZAR government received no response to the ultimatum and the South African War, also known as the Anglo-Boer War, began. The British soldiers under the command of General A. Hunter captured Krugersdorp in 1900 without blow or shot and immediately placed him under martial law. Conditions in the town were difficult, food was scarce and the movement of residents was severely restricted. Genl. Major Barton of the Gordon Highlanders was the commander of the British soldiers during the
occupation of Krugersdorp. The Victorian house with its tower on the corner of De Wet and Begin streets, also known as Kilmarnoch House, was the headquarters of the British during the Anglo-Boer War.
occupying force in Krugersdorp. The house has been well preserved in its original form. It was recently restored. The house is privately owned


24. Fort Harleich
Five block houses were built in Krugersdorp during the British occupation. The only one that has survived is Fort Harleich in Sarel
Oosthuizenstraat, Monumentdorp. The blockhouse secured the entrance to the town from Johannesburg and also kept an eye on the Concentration Camp at the foot of the ridge. The blockhouse is linked to the Welsh troops stationed in Krugersdorp during the Anglo-Boer War.


25. Krugersdorp Concentration Camp
The Krugersdorp Concentration Camp for women and children was probably established in the valley below the Paardekraal Hospital (Yussuf Dadoo Hospital) where Coronation park is today. The concentration camp was the result of the British "scorched earth policy". Poor, overcrowded housing, meager food rations and poor household items  such as furniture and blankets were the order of the day. A nearby fountain and brook supplied the camp and the town with water. By the end of 1901 there were more than 5488 people in the Krugersdorp Concentration camp.


26. Burgershoop Cemetery

Diseases such as measles, gastritis, and pneumonia had epidemic dimensions in the concentration camp. The more than 1800 graves in the Krugersdorp Cemetery (Burgershoop) testify that Krugersdorp also paid a high toll on deaths. The cemetery is the oldest cemetery in Krugersdorp. The tombs of various pioneers can also be found there, i.a. graves of MW Pretorius, father of the Krugersdorp, and his family, Sarel Oosthuizen, Abner Cohen, and others. The ornate gates that gave access to the site were erected in 1935. The concentration camp graves were "renovated" in 1944 and restored by the SAVF (SA Women's Federation). A memorial stone was also erected in memory of the deceased because most of the graves only had numbers and the names of the deceased were lost. A wall separates the concentration camp graves from the rest of the cemetery. British soldiers who died during the Anglo-Boer War were also reburied in the Burgershoop Cemetery. A memorial with the names of the soldiers was placed at the graves.


27. Concentration camp for black people
That Krugersdorp had one of the biggest Refugee Camps for black people is not an acknowledged fact. At the end of July 1901, many black people in the northwest region (Western Transvaal) sought military protection from the British Imperial Army. When the policy of self-sustainment of Refugee camps by way of land cultivation was implemented in November 1901, the Krugersdorp Native Refugee Camp was moved to the farm Waterval No 74 IQ,48 because of the availability of water on this farm. The cultivation of crops on Waterval must have been a success because in September 1902 the Native Refugee Department negotiated with the original farm owner, Mr. AHF (Dries) du Toit, that one-third of the crop on the land at that time would be retained by Du Toit. The remaining two-thirds would go to the Native Refugee Department in return for the labour and expense incurred. The Krugersdorp Native Refugee Camp housed 3 382 people in December 1901. Of this number, 1 288 males were in the service of the British Army, whereas two males, ten women, and nine children worked in private households in Krugersdorp. The exact location of the concentration camp for black people on the farm and the graves of deceased inhabitants could not yet be confirmed. Some graves were found in a section of the Krugersdorp Game Reserve, but it could not yet be confirmed whether it relates to the concentration camp or to farmworkers.


28. Krugersdorp Kommando
The Krugersdorp Commando was established in 1898 with the War against Magato and Mpefu in the now Limpopo Province. The Commando was known during the Anglo-Boer War for its dogged resistance, whereas "The Times History of War in South Africa" describes it as the backbone of the Boer forces under General De La Rey in the Western Transvaal. In Natal the Commando was always in the thick of things. It fought a brave rearguard at Dundee, and served with distinction at Elandslaagte against the Gordon Highlanders. Under the leadership of General Jan Kemp the Krugersdorp Commando defended its country in the Western Transvaal at the Battles of Vlakfontein (30 May 1901), Moedwil (30 September 1901), Driefontein (24 October 1901), Yzerspruit (25 February 1902), Tweebosch (7 March 1902), Boschbult (31 March 1902) and Roodewal (11 April 1902). Various bigger and smaller skirmishes were fought in the Krugersdorp District. Of exceptional importance were the battles of Dwarsvlei (7 July 1900) and Nooitgedacht (13 December 1900). Major-General HA Smith-Dorien was en-route to Hekpoort with his army consisting of Gordon Highlanders, Shopshire Light Infantry, Imperial Yeoman, Royal Scottish Fusiliers, and the 7th Battery Royal Field Artillery when his advance was stopped on the farm Dwarsvlei by a Boer contingent under the command of General Sarel Oosthuizen. Smith-Dorien decided to return to Krugersdorp with the main contingent of his force but left a battalion of Royal Scottish Fusiliers under
the command of Captain Trenchard to cover his back and to protect a gun battery. During the following skirmishes, Trenchard was seriously wounded. General Sarel Oosthuizen was fatally wounded and a Captain Younger killed in the fight for the possession of the gun battery. Oosthuizen died three days later from his wounds. Captain Younger (posthumously) and Captain William Gordon from the Gordon Highlanders received the Victoria Cross for Bravery for saving the gun battery and attending to the wounded at the Battle of Dwarsvlei. The Battle of Nooitgedacht in the Krugersdorp District was a notable victory for the Boer Commando’s under Generals Kemp, De La Rey, Smuts, and Beyers. Unfortunately, they lost the initiative when they started plundering the abandoned British camp instead of pursuing and
capturing the running British soldiers under the Command of Major-General Clements. A total of 78 burgers and 332 British soldiers were killed at the Battle of Nooitgedacht. A long guerrilla-struggle followed the Battle of Nooitgedacht.


29. Education during the ABW
Before the outbreak of the ABW, very few inhabitants of the ZAR had the opportunity to acquire education. There was also no urgent need for schooling. Yet the community was not necessarily illiterate. Most of the residents could read, write, and count. Most children received homeschooling. The school, which had been founded by the Krugersdorp Dutch Reformed Church since 1890, had to close due to ABW. Some of the teachers were called up for commando service. A prominent resident of the town, JH Grundlingh, ran a private school in a zinc feed warehouse on the corner of Commissioner and Dingaan Street (Boshoff Street) in 1901 when the British authorities left. The zinc building was later replaced with a brick school building built in a square. (Today, the building is used by LifeLine.) After the war, this building formed the basis for the CNO school from which Monument High School grew.


30. Town School
During the ABW, the British Military Authority established the Krugersdorp Town School with English as the medium of instruction, which formed part of the British policy of anglicising the population. A new school building was built in 1906 for the Town School on the corner of Fontein and Commissioner Streets. The school served as a hospital during the Spanish flu epidemic of 1918. When the school later moved to new buildings, the municipality took over the buildings. Today it houses the Krugersdorp municipal clinic. It was later named after Dr Jack Smiedt, the municipal health inspector.


31. St Ursula's Monastery and school
The St Ursuline Sisters made a major contribution to the development of education on the West Rand. The St Ursula Convent and Boarding School for Girls opened its doors to the first pupils on February 9, 1904. The first school building, the original farmstead of Vaal Martiens Pretorius, was soon too small to accommodate the growing number of pupils. Extensions were made in 1906, 1910 and 1916, but were replaced in the 1920s by a new building with ornate Cape Dutch gables. The school and convent were designed by architects Cowin, Power, and Ellis. The new building was commissioned in 1929. As a non-racial church school, the St Ursuline Sisters also served St Mary's Missionary School in Munsieville and St Peter and Paul Parochial School for boys in Krugersdorp. Desmond Tutu, one of Krugersdorp's most famous boys, was also educated at St Ursuline Sisters and Archdeacon Temple in Munsieville at St Paul's Mission Church School.


32. Monument Hoërskool
The introduction of compulsory education in 1907 meant that additional classrooms for pupils had to be sought. The school building on the corner of Ockerse and Boshoff streets was soon too small for the growing need for teaching in Afrikaans. The Afrikaans medium Krugersdorp High School was established in 1921. The Masonic Lodge in Ockerse Street provided additional classroom space. The name of the school was changed to Monument High School in 1922. The Paardekraal Monument then also became the symbol of the school. A new school building, designed by the architect Gerhard Moerdyk, was commissioned in 1935. The famous painter Erich Mayer designed and painted a mural of a scene from the Great Trek for the school hall. A visit to the school to view the mural is worth it.



33. Expansion after 1903
Krugersdorp became a municipality in 1903, bringing the three existing townships (Stands Town, District Town and Burgershoop) under one municipal management system. Soon afterward the town expanded with the proclamation of Krugersdorp West in 1905 with the main purpose to provide housing to those people who could not survive on their farms after the Anglo Boer War. A total of 1308 stands were made available in the new township. The private township Lewisham, established by JP Grey on mining land belonging to the Tudor Mine, was transferred to the municipality in 1907. A second brickfield, the  Monument Brickfields, was established in 1909 below the Paardekraal Monument (the area between Paardekraal Drive and President Hyper). The next extension was to the east of the CBD in 1911, namely Krugersdorp-East. Stands in this area were reserved for trades and professional people. A large number of Jewish people settled in Krugersdorp East which gave the suburb the nickname of “Little Jerusalem”.
Black people settled in an informal “location” next to Burgershoop, opposite the spruit. Lease-hold stands were transferred to private ownership according to the Township Development Act of 1908.


34. Municipal Complex
The erection of a town hall on the Market Square, which could house all municipal offices, fire brigade and library, was approved at a public meeting on 12 July 1906. The architect was Chris Hoskings from Krugersdorp, and the building contractor Robson and Holton. The white building, in a slightly French style, is free from the overcrowded neo-classical elements that were a feature of the time. The town hall can accommodate 650 people. The cornerstone of the hall was laid on 10 May 1907 by Lord Shepstone, British High Commissioner to South Africa. A number of coins and the mayor's reports of 1903-1906 were bricked under the cornerstone. The town hall was officially opened on 8 February 1908 by Genl. JC Smuts, Colonial Secretary of the Transvaal and then inaugurated with a performance of Joseph Tressi's comedy Boccaccio by The Operatic Class of the SA College of Music and a banquet in the banquet hall. The caterer for the banquet was J. Betz from the Grant Hotel. The Mikado was performed in the town hall the following evening, followed by loud musical performances on Sunday 10 February 1908. The Westminster Tower Clock is a gift from Sir Abe Bailey, businessman and owner of the York Mine, in Krugersdorp. The tower clock was introduced on April 16, 1908. The City Hall almost burned down in 1939 due to an electrical short circuit. A passerby noticed the smoldering fire and called the fire department in time to put out the fire before serious damage was done. By 1936, the City Hall could no longer meet all the office needs of the municipality. A ground floor was built behind the hall in 1937. A second floor was added on top of these additions in 1941. Side wings were added in 1950 and between 1974 and 1987 the complex was enlarged to its current format. The portico was added in 1947, specifically for the reception of King George VI. The City Hall (main hall, transept, stairs and council chamber) with ring wall was declared a National Monument in 1995. The first market building was erected on the Market Square in 1904 and replaced in 1916 with a large market hall of corrugated zinc. A new market building was erected in the 1930s. The main entrance to the market building has elements of the Art Deco style. The market closed in 1974 due to the absence of cold rooms, frosting rooms and loading platforms. Today it forms an integral part of the Municipal Complex. The Women's Christian Temperance Union October 1910 had a drinking fountain erected on the Market Square to commemorate the establishment of the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910. The inscription on the fountain reads: “For God, for home, for every country”. The fountain is one of the most impressive cast iron works from the MacFarlane foundry. The original fountain had a hedgehog in the middle of the drinking bowl. The water flowed over the bird in the drip tray and over the edge into the water bowl. (A similar fountain can be seen on the town square in Burgersdorp). The War Arc was erected to commemorate Adv. J.G. Strijdom, Fifth Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa, who died in 1958. The arch was designed by T. Pitout and unveiled on April 26, 1962 by Mrs. Strijdom during the town's 75th year of existence. At the top of the arch is a gold-bearing banquet from the West Rand Consolidated Mines. The Centenary Hall was erected with a view to the Centenary celebrations of the existence of Krugersdorp in 1987. The gallery is named after PP (Breytie) Breytenback, the “father” of amateur theater in South Africa. The wall frieze in the foyer was done by Charles Gotthard.


35. Historical Churches
The contrast in the architecture of the church buildings in Central Krugersdorp is typical of the multi-cultural nature of the town. The St Peter’s Anglican Church (Von Brandis Street), designed by Herbert Baker, was unveiled in 1905 by the Archdeacon Temple. In contrast stand the old NG Church (Church Street) established in 1890 and built in the typical version of Transvaal Gothic style. This style is the most popular style for churches from the 19th century and it can be found all over South Africa. A new architectural style for churches, designed by the architect Gerhard Moerdyk was introduced in the late 1920’s and 1930’s. The sandstone church building at the corner of President- and Kruger Streets with its coupled tower is a landmark in the Krugersdorp CBD, contrasting the Lady of the Rosary Cathedral of the Roman Catholic Church in Luipaard Street.



36. Krugersdorp Station
The station building was built by MCA Meischke and opened in 1896 by President Paul Kruger. The gables are decorated with curls, pilasters, and violent triangles. Of interest is the interior with its ticket office and waiting rooms that were all equipped with fireplaces. The building was declared a National Monument in 1983. The new (current) railway station was erected in 1941.


37. Krugersdorp Police Station
The building was erected in 1897. The first stone was laid on January 28, 1897 by a grandson of President Paul Kruger, Lieutenant Sarel Eloff, commander of the local Riding Police Corps. The building was erected by L de Waard. The architectural appearance and style are unusual for government buildings of its time. Sarel Eloff gained fame with his heroic actions during the Jameson invasion of 1896 and later also during the siege of Mafeking. One of the first criminal cases to be dealt with by the police was the Standard Bank Robbery (first bank robbery in South Africa). Eloff and some of his men chased the robbers on horseback and stopped at the Witpoortjie Hotel and captured them. The building was built in 1995 restored. The plaster was removed to expose the interesting stonework.


38. Historic buildings (1)
MM Dadoo and Dinbar founded the firm Dadoo Limited in 1915. Indian property rights and land ownership were disputed in a high court case in 1919. Dadoo challenged the court ruling in the Court of Appeal and obtained permission to establish and operate his business in the Central Township. By 1923, several Indian shops had begun to establish themselves around Market Square. Dadoo Limited built a new shopping complex in the 1930s, with an apartment on top of the complex. The residential rights of the Indians were disputed by the City Council at that time, which resulted in the dispute being treated as the first "anti-apartheid case" by the old League of Nations. The City Council was obliged to approve the building plans and a “Dadoo block” developed in the central business district as a result. As a result, the City Council approved the development of an Indian business center east of City Hall in 1974. Thompson & Calvert Building (The Inn Hotel) is also known as the Klonowsky Building, named after the first pharmacist, a Jewish immigrant, who erected the building. After his departure for New York, the pharmacy was opened by Messrs. Thompson and Calvert took over.



39. Historic buildings (2)
The stone building housing Westrand Business Chamber and Tourism dates from 1914 as the Post and Telegraph Office. It was later used as offices for the Mine Commissioner before the WBCT occupied it. Next to this building is a hotel built on the stand that was allocated to Abner Cohen in 1887 as promised to him by Pres. Paul Kruger. A small plaque at the entrance indicates that the building was inaugurated by Cohen in 1914. The Mogale Fire Station with its Art Deco elements dates from 1930. The Môreglans Old Age Home (Market Street) was established by the South African Women’s Federation (SAVF) in 1910. The Cape Dutch gables were popular architectural features of that period.

40. Historiese Huise
In Krugersdorp North are several residential houses of historical significance, i.e. the Van Blommenstein House and the Dewetshof in DeWet Street and the house of genl. Sarel Oosthuizen in Viljoen Street. Gerrit
van Blommenstein was the first Afrikaans speaking mayor of Krugersdorp whilst Dewetshof belonged to magistrate De Wet. This is the first double storey house in Krugersdorp. The house of Sarel Oosthuizen was allocated to his widow after the Anglo-Boer War in memory of his brave stand at the Battle of Dwarsvlei.


41. Monuments for fallen soldiers 
A monument with the names of the British soldiers who died during the Anglo-Boer War is in the Burgershoop Cemetery, next to the Concentration Camp graves. The cenotaph and canon next to the library in Von Brandis Street commemorates the soldiers from Krugersdorp that died during the
two World Wars and defending the Border of South Africa. The trees in Memorial Lane in Monumentdorp, behind the Paardekraal Monument, were planted after the Second World War in memory of the sons from
Krugersdorp who died in the war. The trees used to have a nameplate of a  specific soldier fixed to them.


42. Krugersdorp Club
The Krugersdorp Club was founded in 1894 by drs. Wouter van der Merwe and Percy Stewart founded as a "gentlemen's club". A guest book with the names of important guests as well as various other important documents is kept in the Club. The wooden and zinc building was taken into use in 1897. Dr Wouter van Merwe lived on the corner of Kruger and Ockerse streets opposite the Club in the 1890s. He planted a Jacaranda tree in the back of his yard, which still stands there today. According to tradition, Pres. Paul Kruger, who is a house friend of dr. Van der Merwe liked to hang out under the tree when he visited Krugersdorp. He also interviewed residents in the shade of the tree. Dr van der Merwe liked to have a sundowner at the club across the street. The club was visited by many of the British officers during the ABO. The information he gathered during his conversations there, he again shared with his friends, among others Vaal Martiens Pretorius and Gerrit van Blommenstein - They again spread the information of British movements to the commandos through the letters on dogs' collars, among other things.


43. West Rand Union Club
The West Rand Union Club in Ockerse Street was founded in 1901 by Sir Abe Bailey with the aim of bringing about unity among white men after the Anglo-Boer War in Krugersdorp. Sir Abe Bailey was the parliamentary representative of Krugersdorp for many years.


44. Desmond Tutu
Munsieville is the childhood home of Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Archbishop Emeritus and Nobel Peace Prize recipient Desmond Mpilo Tutu lived in Munsieville from the age of eight. His father was headmaster of St Paul's Anglican Mission School where young Mpilo began his education. Tutu was later a schoolteacher at Munsieville School before he joined the priesthood. Tutu and his wife Leah married in a Roman Catholic Church in Munsieville. He recalls: "That church was raised to the ground along with many
residential buildings because Munsieville was doomed to be demolished. It was an aberration; a black spot in what should have been a lily-white area. Munsieville was reprieved only by the intervention of Leon Wessels, the Nationalist MP for Krugersdorp, who later apologised handsomely for apartheid. He was to become Deputy Chair of the Constituent Assembly that gave us our wonderful Constitution." Tutu's  childhood home in Maqoki Street can be visited by appointment.


DR J du Plooy (WEST RAND HERITAGE CONSULTANTS)[email protected]